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Braincells, also called neurons use electricity to communicate with each other. Medical equipment like an EEG are able to measure these electric brainwaves.
Those graphs shown by the EEG are called Brain Waves Patterns because of its cyclic,wave-like nature.There are 4 different Categories of Brain Wave Patterns.
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“Most of us live the majority of our lives in a state of primarily beta brain waves – aroused, alert, concentrated, but also somewhat stressed.”

The Alpha Brain Wave Pattern is an ideal condition for us to learn new Information like new languages, analyze complex situations or for example improve focus and performance in athletics. The “decreased electrical activity in the brain can lead to significant increases in feel-good brain chemicals like endorphins, noroepinephrine and dopamine.”

When you focus on something like meditation, your breath or a prayer the electrical patterns in your brain slow down and relax “and the amplitude of your brain-waves generally stabilizes in the alpha wave range.”
To get the same effect you can use the Brainwave entrainment method that causes your brainwaves to change its EGG frequency towards the frequency of a dominant external stimulus, such as binaural beats.
“The way that these work is that two tones close in frequency generate a beat frequency at the difference of the frequencies.”
For example: a 315 Hz audio tone and 325 Hz will produce a 10 Hz binaural beat, which is in the middle of the alpha brain wave range.

Interview with expert Dr. Jeffrey Thompson: Transcript